DEFINITION OF DYSLEXIA
Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.
DEFINITION OF DYSGRAPHIA
Dysgraphia is a written language disorder in serial production of strokes to form a handwritten letter. This involves not only motor skills but also language skills—finding, retrieving and producing letters, which is a subword-level language skill. The impaired handwriting may interfere with spelling and/or composing, but individuals with only dysgraphia do not have difficulty with reading (Berninger, Richards, & Abbott, 2015).
A review of recent evidence indicates that dysgraphia is best defined as a neurodevelopmental disorder manifested by illegible and/or inefficient handwriting due to difficulty with letter formation. This difficulty is the result of deficits in graphomotor function (hand movements used for writing) and/or storing and retrieving orthographic codes (letter forms) (Berninger, 2015). Secondary consequences may include problems with spelling and written expression. The difficulty is not solely due to lack of instruction and is not associated with other developmental or neurological conditions that involve motor impairment.
Adopted by the International Dyslexia Association Board of Directors
November 12, 2002
Listing of What Dysgraphia Is & Is Not
MYTHS & MISCONCEPTIONS
Dysgraphia Defined: Scottish Rite for Children Booklet
IMPORTANT CHANGES - ENGLISH
IMPORTANT CHANGES - SPANISH
Dyslexia Handbook 2021
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
THE ROLE OF PARENTS
What can parents do to help their dyslexic child?
• Parental support greatly affects the achievement of the student.
• Explain your child's learning differences to him and answer his questions.
• Set high standards and attainable goals.
• TALK to your child. These children often learn the best orally, so introduce all the vocabulary and learning situations you can.
• READ to your child and with your child.
• Keep school work ORGANIZED. Use different colored folders for each subject. Clean out your child's binder or back pack on a regular basis.
• Focus on your child's strengths and abilities. Encourage hobbies, interests, and talents.
• Set a homework/study schedule at home. Your child may need homework support from YOU. Plus, they may need extra time each evening to complete assignments.
• Keep in close contact with your student's teachers AND monitor their grades daily online. Encourage your child to take advantage of tutoring opportunities.
• Incorporate technology whenever possible. Computers with spelling software can be a dyslexic student's best friend. Encourage your child to learn to keyboard.
• Read about dyslexia or visit informative websites and see what you can learn.
• Utilizes the RGR phonics program for all students in the primary grades.
• Intervention pull-out classes using the Scottish Rite Take Flight Program
• Classroom accommodations through 504 or IDEA
• Allowable STAAR accommodations
• Yearly meetings with parents, administrators, and teachers.
• Audio books through Learning Ally
• Parent Education
The Talking Book Program provides free library services for Texans of any age who are blind or have a visual, physical, or reading disability.
The Learning Ally Audiobook Solution is a multi-sensory reading accommodation that levels the playing field for students who struggle to read due to a reading deficit, providing them the opportunity to achieve in school and in life.
Texas College and Career Readiness Support Center
BOOKS ABOUT DYSLEXIA
• All Kinds of Minds by Mel Levine, M.D.
• Basic Facts About Dyslexia & Other Reading Problems by Louisa Cook Moats, Karen E. Dakin
• Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print—A Summary by Marilyn Jager Adams
• Dyslexia, Fluency, and the Brain by Maryanne Wolf
• Dyslexia: Theory and Practice of Instruction, Third Edition by Diana Brewster Clark, Joanna Kellog Uhry
• English Isn’t Crazy! by Diana Handbury King
• Helping Children Overcome L.D. by Gerome Rosner
• Homework Without Tears: A Parent’s Guide for Motivating Children To Do Homework and To Succeed in School by Lee Canter, Lee Hausner
• How Dyslexic Benny Became a Star: A Story of Hope for Dyslexic Children and Their Parents by Joe Griffith
• Informed Instruction for Reading Success: Foundations for Teacher Preparation by The International Dyslexia Association
• Josh: A Boy With Dyslexia by Caroline Janover
• Keeping A Head in School: A Student’s Book about Learning Abilities and Learning Disorders by Mel Levine, M.D.
• Learning Outside the Lines: Two Ivy League Students with Learning Disabilities and AdHD Give You the Tools for Academic Success and Educational Revolution by Jonathan Mooney, David Cole
• Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills, 3rd Edition by Judith R. Birsh (Ed.)
• My Name is Brain Brian by Jeanne Betancourt
• Overcoming Dyslexia: A New and Complete Science-Based Program for Reading Problems at An Level by Sally Shaywitz, M.D.
• Parenting a Struggling Reader by Susan L. Hall, Louisa C. Moats
• Proust and the Squid, The Story and Science of the Reading Brain by Maryanne Wolf
• Reading Assessment: Linking Language, Literacy, and Cognition by Melissa Lee Farrall
• Reading David: A Mother and Son’s Journey Through the Labyrinth of Dyslexia by Lissa Weinstein, Ph.D.
• Revealing Minds: Assessing to Understand and Support Struggling Learners by Craig Pohlman
• Smart Kids with School Problems: Things to Know & Ways to Help by Pricilla Vail
• Speech to Print by Louisa C. Moats
• Straight Talk About Reading: How Parents Can Make a Difference During the Early Years by Susan L. Hall, Louisa C. Moats
• The Difficult Child by Stanley Turecki, M.D., Leslie Tonner
• The Many Faces of Dyslexia by Margaret Byrd Rawson
• The Misunderstood Child: Understanding and Coping with Your Child’s Learning Disability by Larry B. Silver, M.D.
• The Read Aloud Handbook by Jim Trelease
• The Source for Dyslexia and Dysgraphia by Regina Richards
• The Tuned-in, Turned-on Book about Learning Problems by Marnell Hayes
• The Voice of Evidence in Reading Research by Peggy McCardle, Vinita Chhabra
• The Worst Speller in Jr. High by Caroline Janover, Rosemary Wellner
• “What’s Wrong with Me?” Learning Disabilities at Home and School by Regina Cicci
BISD PERSONNEL FOR DYSLEXIA
East Elementary & High School
South Elementary & Junior High